A Stereoscopic method of verifying Apollo lunar surface images
by OLEG OLEYNIK, Ph.D.c
Previously of the Department of Physics and Technology
Kharkov State University, Ukraine
Photographs taken on the lunar surface during the Apollo missions are regarded as the most compelling pieces of evidence that mankind went to the Moon.
The photographic validation method presented here is based on the detection of two-dimensional objects among three-dimensional objects, and determining the mutual arrangement of these objects in space and the distance to them by applying a technique known as stereoscopic parallax.
The word parallax derives from the Greek parallaxis meaning "alteration" where parallax is the difference in the apparent position of objects caused by shifting camera position. To achieve such a result, images are overlapped and are deducted/subtracted from each other using the function "difference" in an image processing application such as Photoshop®. Optical transformations are used when images are subtracted. During image convergence simple operations are applied: x and y axis scaling, rotation and distortion plus two additional processes: perspective and shift.
Such processes are referred to below as "optical transformations". Objects further than two kilometres distant, with a minor camera shift, have zero parallax.
Using Photoshop® the sequence of steps deployed is as follows:
Two overlapping images are placed on different layers – thereby creating a PSD file.
Application of function "difference" to the upper layer (subtraction of images from each other).
Optical transformations are applied: axes x and y scaling, rotation, distortion, perspective and in addition a shift to the requirement specified above. As a result maximum density black for the background is obtained.
The layer is returned to the normal view: function "normal".
The PSD file is pruned to remove non-overlapping parts.
Sequentially, the converted layers are carried over into the application’s GIF animator.
A stereoscopic GIF image is obtained that permits the creation of a 3D effect, even on a flat screen.
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